Reflective entry 5 :Original Surveys and Common Surveys within Canada

My quest in understanding survey led me to believe that, it is the application of scientific knowledge used to obtain the dimensions of a portion of land. The major reasons for carrying out land surveys include; certifying land ownership, obtaining data for construction and drawing maps. Surveying practices have a vast history dating to as far as 2500 BC among the Egyptians. An example of land survey portrayed during the ancient period was, ‘beating the bounds’ which was practiced by the Welsh and English natives. Though survey in itself is a wide topic, this entry will focus more on original and common survey types within Canada.

The common survey types that I came across include topographic survey, hydrographic survey, Geodetic survey, and Cartography. Each of these survey types is performed differently and provides specific details about a terrain. Cartography, for example, is the most basic which expresses the distance between two points on a map by drawing a line and using an angle or two between the points. Hydrography describes the water features of terrain such as rivers, streams and the coastline. Geodetic on the other hand is unique since it caters for the earth’s curvature and shows accurate points on the earth’s surface. Another major survey type in Canada is the topographic survey which indicates the elevation of different surfaces.

From the research I conducted, I believe it is safe to say that land survey has existed for a better part of our civilized past as humans, dating back to as far as 2500 BC. Land survey as a practice has played a pivotal role in the establishment of civilizations by paving way for construction and map drawing. A clear example was ‘beating the bounds’, which was practiced by the English. Canada specifically utilizes a number of survey types which helped map out certain features on the terrain. These features mapped out include waterways, elevation, and the distance between different locations.

This has indeed been quite the ideal learning experience of a life time, I have definitely learnt a lot from Land administration and can’t wait to implement them in the real world.

Response Assignment 6

  1. Using Google Earth or Google maps, Find an image of each of the following types of survey system in Canada: For this assignment, Google map was used to acquires these images:
(a) Seigneurial System
Nova Scotia Township System
Ontario Township System(later)

Dominion Land System
British Columbia Survey System
Unsystematic Settlement in Newfound Land
Block and Lot Survey System

2. Choose some area in the world, outside of Canada. Based on a visual examination of that area in Google Earth/ Google maps .

A captured image of Lagos, Nigeria

a. I would say yes, the land allocation appears to be systematic because each parcel can be easily identified and it’s orientation is somewhat consistent.

b. I would say it has some similarities to the dominion land survey system.

c. The area doesn’t appear to be densely settled, the area has a good population density.

d. The land is mostly used for industrial and residential purposes.

e. Yes, it appears to be a good fit for the land use and population density.

Reflective Entry 4:Real Property Law In Nigeria

For this week's reflective entry , I choose to reflect more on the topic real property law.
I decided to expand my horizon research to Nigeria, Africa. Starting out this entry without
defining the term "Real Property Law" would be iniquitous on my part. Real property is referred
to as any subset of land that has been improved through legal human actions, it also entails the
right of use, control and disposition of the land and its attached objects. Now property law is a law
that governs the various forms of ownership and tenancy in real property and in personal property
within the common law legal system. Now property law in Nigeria is practiced in a latitudinous manner,
a lot of focus is placed on dealings and laws applicable to these dealings in tangible or real property(land).

Nigeria just like any other country has a precised process for acquiring  parcels of lands, this includes:
A. First settlement: A parcel of land can be acquired through this means by deforestation by the original
owners of the land and they earn the right to do this by obtaining ownership rights as the first owners.
A perfect example would be lands acquired by a cultural family. This worked perfectly in the early 90's
but not so much now.

B. Land Inheritance: A land is acquired using the transfer of devolution methodology, this requires the
transfer of ownership rights through wills and assent.

C. Land As A Gift: The original owners of the land voluntarily gives out the land to possible recipients
without any required means of payment. This is very common in Nigeria strictly for investment purposes.

D. Conquest: This system can mostly be found in remote rural areas (i.e. villages) where a piece of land is
given to the winner of a tribal war between different tribe warriors. This was common in the 90's.

E. Sale of Land:This is a transfer of interest in land by the seller to  any interested party for a given price.
This is the most common and popular means of acquiring ownership in Nigeria till date.

In Nigeria , properties are transacted through various means. A few means can be through pledges, leases,license,
mortgage,sales,gifts etc and you can exercise your ultimate right over a land by having certain proofs or evidences
such as legal documents, traditional evidences(kins men or family tiles that can back you up on your claim)etc.
This was a really interesting topic because for the longest time, I was never exposed to the legal aspects of acquiring
a land, so learning about this broaden my knowledge on property rights.

Below are some really interesting articles I found, should you be interested in  learning more about this topic.

Reflective Entry 3:Land Registration

I choose to focus on the systems of land registration for this week's reflective assignment
and decided to create a brief comparison cycle on how the Land registration works in
Nigeria, Japan and Canada.
It was really interesting learning about the registration process of proprietary interests
in lands.  It got me thinking about how the same system works in Nigeria which happens
to be my country of origin. Now a land registry as we all know plays the functional role
of documenting all made land transactions, however a land registration system on the
other hand plays a functional role of determining, recording and publicizing  information
about the ownership, value and use of land.The land system differs between the various
states but is heavily enforced in Lagos state where it requires any document pertaining to
a parcel of land has to be registered at a land registry, failure to do this automatically makes
any claim of rights of ownership void and a void document cannot be held admissible by a
court of law should you decide to plead a case.

On the other hand, the land registration system in Japan strictly operates on a registration by
contract principle.Their land registration system adapts a real estate registration framework
which involves registering lands and buildings as houses on ground and are processed separately.
It was interesting to know that laws set in place to govern these registration processes have no
plausibility about them, it clearly states that"Any publicity of real estate, or setting, conservation,
turnover, alteration of the nigh rights including ownership, surface rights, permanent tenancy,
easement, priority privilege, pledge rights, mortgage, rental rights and mining rights, and limitation
or revocation of behaviors need to be registered in the government or local office of legal affairs."
A typical land registry would include a false registration(a temporary registration of the property
rights when they are changed and are meant to take effect immediately but have failed to complete
the  related formalities), a mark registration(a record showing the actual property rights change on
legal booklets to authenticate the consistency of registration) and a cancellation registration.

Canada also operates on a similar system, it demands that all records including privately owned lands
must be registered with the government.

This was truly a fun and intriguing topic to study and learn about, I'm so blown away as to how much
I've learnt so far about land administration.


AWOLAJA Adekunle ‘Gbenga(2017). Retrieved from

Xu Jian. Land Registration Systems and Inspirations from Japan, Hongkong and Other Countries
and Regions [J]. Chinese and Foreign Real Estate Guide, 1998(16):44-47.Retrieved from

Response Assignment 3

1. Advertisement: Pepsi Super Bowl Commercial
Source: The Fader Inc. All rights reserved.©2019
For this question I choose the recent pepsi commercial that was premiered 
during the just concluded super bowl game. The commercial featured the likes
of actor Steve Carell who is well known for his hardcore roles in movies
and tv shows, Cardi B who is well known for dominating the hip-hop music
industry at the moment and Lil Jon who is also an American actor. After watching
this commercial I would say the use of pathos and ethos were implemented. An
interesting question would be how?Well, this is how:
Ethos: It is easier to make a decision or buy a product when someone you
trust and respect signs off on it. So when a celebrity or an esteemed societal
figure endorses a product, It validates that product on the consumer's end.
Pepsi took advantage of this by including these three esteemed characters, thereby
convincing the public audience of it's good value. Basically saying if Cardi B,
Steve Carell and Lil Jon love drinking pepsi, you should too because they're
supposedly living their best life in the public eye and you as a die hard fan should
be loyal enough to purchase the drink.

Pathos: Most companies implement this in their ads to stir the emotions of
viewers and we both know emotions has a way of creating responses and this
triggers consumers to buy these products.In this Ad, you can hear Steve Carell
relating shooting stars, puppies, the laughter of a small child to a question
asked by the server"IS pepsi okay?". He ended up convincing the lady that had
ordered for a drink with these illustrations and ended his argument with a solid
statement"Pepsi is more than Okayyy" Okurrr........

2. Case: Kingston_v_Highland_1919

                                                    Case Citation
Kingston v. Highland , 47 N.B.R 324(ncccva 1991)

This case is important for a surveyor trying to determine the boundaries
of a parcel of land because It highlights what a surveyor ought to do in this
Case: To determine the division line between the northern and southern halves
of Lot E, and did the defendant in operating the land,encroach or cut beyond the
southern boundary of the northern half of it.

Why This Case Is Important For a Surveyor
 The boundary of the parcel of land was marked using a line by both parties. A
surveyor when called upon should locate the location of the original line (if
possible), find stakes, monuments and marked measurements that can determine the
boundary line of the property. It is the duty of the surveyor not to ascertain that the boundary
line is lost until he has thoroughly examined the land and discover that the line is untraceable 
and even if this is the case, should hesitate a bit to avoid making hasty decisions. Also he is responsible
for asking probing questions surrounding how the boundary line was originated, how and why the lines
were then located as they were,and whether a claim of title has always accompanied the right of

Reading Module VI:Kingston_v_Highland_1919.Retrieved February 22, 2019 from

3.                                         Part "1"
All that certain lot 26, situated in the township of East Hawkesbury County
of Prescott, and province of Ontario, more particularly described as follows:

Beginning at monument I.B, the southwest corner of lot 26, moving at a distance
of 220 ft on an azimuth of N16 degrees 51 minutes 30 seconds E to reach the
northwest corner of the lot 26 ;along the line of part 2 of the lot; thence moving
199 ft along the boundary line for part 1 and part 2,13 feet from and opposite
to a wire fence of the lot on an azimuth of S69 degrees 29 minutes 30 seconds E
to get to the northeast corner of the lot;thence move a distance of 220 ft on an azimuth
of N16 degrees 51 minutes 30 seconds W to get to the the southeast corner; thence westerly
a distance of 209 ft on an azimuth of N67 degrees 20 minutes 30seconds W to the point of beginning